Talmud: its history and content. What is Shulkhan Aruch

Talmud: its history and content. What is Shulkhan Aruch

Voice of Yakov

Voice of Yakov

Sefer Jalkut Josef in Russian with Commentaries. Volume 2, 3

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A short set of religious laws for Russian-speaking Jews Sephardim, descendants of Central Asia and the Caucasus


A brief history of Jewish law

Written Torah and the Oral Torah was given by God to the Jewish people as a whole , but for centuries the Oral Torah , explaining Written , passed from mouth to mouth, until it has become necessary to write it down . It happened early in the third century AD . So born Mishna. Here is what the great commentator on the Torah Rambam the causes of the decision to record the oral teaching of the sages . "And he [ the compiler of the Mishnah Rabbi Yehuda ha -Nasi ] collected all the laws , explanations and comments , as received from Moshe Rabbeinu and adopted bet din each generation , and this was the Mishnah ... Why did so Rabbeinu ha - Kadosh ? .. Because he saw that it reduces the number of students multiplied misery ... and Jews rasseyvayutsya of nations. "

Explaining what was said in the Mishnah sages ( Amora'im ) for three centuries have accumulated enormous amount of material that was included in the Jerusalem and Babylonian Talmud . However, it is the Babylonian Talmud became the main base for breeding and codification of Halacha . Due to global historical events Jewish people were scattered around the world. In general , we can say that one part of the Jews appeared in the Christian world , the other in the Muslim . Due to the hostility between Christians and Muslims and other reasons , these diaspora bad contacted . But long before this division was founded tradition , guaranteeing the preservation and development of Jewish law , the study of the Talmud. An excerpt from the book " History of the Jews " by the famous historian Cecil Roth about the significance of the Babylonian Talmud in Jewish culture .

"Period editing Talmud coincided with the growth of independent Jewish centers located in remote areas, and divorced in the political sense of the language of the former nucleus. Jews stood on the threshold of an entirely new phase of its existence in the countries which had never heard of , they are faced with unfamiliar classes before , were faced with unprecedented challenges. Jews took with them into the new world is not just religious ideas or set of laws , but civilization. Lifestyle, such detail prescribed by the Talmud , united all the people of Israel , no matter where he was and what political faction nor shared . He imposed on Jews characteristic imprint which distinguished them from all other peoples, and also gave them a phenomenal view of the stability and cohesion. Jewish Talmudic dialectic honed mind and gave him extraordinary sharpness. Moreover , the Talmud open persecuted Jew of the Middle Ages a world in which he found spiritual refuge when the vicissitudes of the world in which he lived , became unbearable. Talmud gave him the "homeland " , which could take him when his beloved land was lost to him . And if the Jews were able to survive as a nation for many subsequent centuries under conditions which would not have been any other people , the first thing they owe it to the Talmud . "

Ashkenazi and Sephardi method

During this period, formed two techniques in the study and interpretation of the Talmud : Sephardi and Ashkenazi . To better understand the difference between them , compare, their representatives : Rabbi Yitzhak Alfasi ( Rif ) and Rambam ( Sephardic school) and Rashi and Tosafot ( Ashkenazi school). Rabbi Yitzchak and Rambam are Codifiers Halacha , for them the main thing in the Talmudic discussion is its end result , a response that is specific decision law . In contrast, Rashi and Tosafot is primarily commentators . For them, the important thing to understand each step of the Talmudic discussion , its logic , the meaning of each argument, sages, even if this argument is rejected and will not affect the legal ruling. Ashkenazi school is more focused on the process of solving problems , rather than the final answer. We can say that the Sephardic approach to the Talmud more "practical" and Ashkenazi more "academic" . In a sense , this difference persists to this day.

Several prominent Jewish sages of the Middle Ages from the East , North Africa, Spain, France and Germany, since the era of Gaon , taking successful attempts codification and systematization of laws drawn from the Talmud and rabbinical rulings ( Psak Halacha ) in one common code of Jewish law . Finally, in the mid-sixteenth century appears and is quickly gaining popularity grand Code of Jewish Law Shulchan Aruch (literally, " Set the table "), Rabbi Yosef Karo .

Caro tried to present in his work as Sephardi and ashkeiazskuyu Halacha , however, being a disciple of Sephardic rabbis , it is most commonly reflected in his opinion such Code largest Sephardic authorities as Isaac ben Jacob Alfas and Rambam , of Ashkenazi Rishonim he basically followed Jacob ben Asher and Asher ben Yehiel ( Roche ) .

As acknowledged by all Jewish communities and ethnic groups Shulchan Aruch basic and most authoritative code of laws of the Torah. After its publication , a large number of works that treat and supplementing it. Chief among them " Mapa " (" tablecloth ") Moses ben Israel Isserles , set himself the task to supplement the book Caro halachic works of art Ashkenazi poskim and those practices that arose among Ashkenazi Jews. How Ashkenazi and Sephardi different approaches in the study of the Talmud , so different Ashkenazi and Sephardi halachic school. Sephardic sages ( Reef ) reduce the Talmudic discussion to two or three main views and conclusions answer without considering the position of other scientists. In contrast, the Ashkenazim ( Roche ) to "expand " the topic being discussed Talmud , adding opinions later scribes , commenting on the text , and only then giving an answer . Sephardic School ( Karo ) in decision-making should be the principle of " the most " when asking for the majority opinion compares the views of all the scribes of different eras , to speak on the subject, outside the time , of course , subject to the authority of each of the participants . When this principle is not considered a change in the overall situation , the changes in everyday life , customs, society , mentality and others . In Ashkenazi methodology is based on an approach that could be called " halacha on the last ." It gives greater weight to those rabbis who worked closer to our time . In this approach, great attention is paid to the living , acting customs, even if they are not recorded in the authoritative books of the past. However, in the modern world , especially after the emergence of the State of Israel ( no corresponding state model described in the Talmud ) , teachers of the law stood prior to such questions, which it is impossible to give a definite answer on the basis of previous halachic works. Decisions poskim inevitably began to influence their religious and philosophical views , ideological beliefs and other " vnegalahicheskie " considerations . It seems our time is the beginning of a new era in the development of Judaism and Halacha .

Blessed be the Lord and Blessed be His Name forever and ever for what He has given us to live up to the publication of this book : the second and third volumes of the Code of religious laws and practical halachic decisions " Yalkut Yosef " translated into Russian. The second volume is devoted to the rules of execution commandments tzitzit , and the third execution rules mitzvah of tefillin .

These provisions apply to categories of commandments governing the relationship between man and God. Their main point : a reminder of the existence of the Creator and the need uncompromisingly believe in Him commandments given to them by people chosen on the Jewish people, the miracle of the Exodus from Egypt . Since putting on a tallit and tefillin overlay begins every weekday person, so it is important to start " on the right foot ," that is, with proper , rigorous enforcement of these important regulations.

" Yalkut Yosef ," a code of laws , designed in the style of Shulchan Aruch and an extension of the ideas and principles of Rabbi Yosef Karo , intended for representatives of Sephardic and Oriental communities , including Russian-speaking Bukharian , Mountain , Georgian Jews . Here, along with explanations of the meaning of the laws ( given their sources ) and the accepted customs of their execution understand various life situations in which it may be a modern man who wants the best possible way to fulfill the commandment . Language book is simple and concise , but it does not prevent the presentation of rather complex halachic issues. Its author, Rabbi Yitzhak Yosef , the son of a prominent Rabbi Ovadia Yosef galahista yes Almighty prolong their days and give them health , our contemporary , a resident of Israel , and he was perfectly aware of the conditions of life and mentality of our generation.

Proposed transfer is not complete, omitted the chapters and paragraphs , which we considered intended for professionals and irrelevant for a wide range of Russian-speaking readers , for example, devoted to the manufacturing process of tefillin , the preparation of parchment for writing parashiyot , etc. However, the numbering of chapters and sections left without changes , so if you need can be traced , which are omitted .

In consultation with the author, we have decided that from now on contributions will be printed along with the original Hebrew text with vowels . Thus the reader is given the opportunity to maximize insight into the meaning set forth , except that we hope that young people who do not speak Russian enough , will also take part in the joint , a family study of this book. Given the complexity of the text, its saturation special , often have no analogues in Russian language , concepts and terms , the translator did not aim to make a literal translation and it is not possible. However, we have made every effort to sense written was transferred fully and accurately .

Given the experience , we are attracted to work on this project professional editors and Gorodetsky Yigal Baruch Kamyanova ( Avni ) , give them the God of health and longevity. Advice had Pinchas Gil (publishing house " Shamir" ) , Yehuda Wexler (publishing house " Amana "), Hillel Rabbi Haim ( director of " Ateret Menachem" ) equal Rami Jon and equal Shahar Diehl and others. I express my special thanks to my loyal friends and Roman Davidovich Badalbayeva Vitaly Eduardovich Shimunovu for assistance in promoting this project.

A lot of effort and time was devoted to the preparation of notes and other reference materials . They are based on the clarification of the author and are taken from the full edition of the Code " Yalkut Yosef " (2004) , which is the source of our translation. Also used additional literature ( list of publications is given in Annex III). Hopefully, this article will help the reader to better understand the meaning of Jewish law , and do them exactly . Moreover, this work is in no way a substitute for advice of rabbis in dealing with any halachic problems.

Words and expressions in italics (when they first appear in the text ) , usually explained in the "Dictionary - reference terms and concepts of Judaism," (see Appendix II), which was significantly augmented by new articles . Notified every time is not done. Words like Halakha , Mishna , etc. Barayta scored capitalized represent a general concept , a set of laws , codes , etc. If these words are spelled with a lowercase letter , we are talking about specific laws, regulations, etc. Example Treatises of the Talmud referred to and cited in the text refer to the Babylonian Talmud . Russian spelling of certain words and phrases in Hebrew responsible Sephardic tradition. Sign the letter g ה Hebrew alphabet and read about as English h.

We hope with God's help to continue the work on this project and as our forces and resources to produce light in subsequent volumes Code " Yalkut Yosef " translated into Russian. 

More Information
Shelf Barrie/Toronto
Weight 0.840000
Publisher Abraham Library
ISBN 978-965-92025-0-8
Author Yosef, Itshak, r.
Height (CM) 25
Length (CM) 18
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