In the book by Doctor of Philology, L.F. Katsis (Center for Biblical and Jewish Studies RGGU) examines the historical and religious and political aspects of the famous case against Mendel Bailis of committing a ritual murder of Andrei Yushchinsky. The case involved eminent Russian lawyers, doctors, scholars, Orientalists, reveals the role of Archbishop Anthony (Khrapovitsky) in organizing the ritual examination at the trial in Kiev. The book examines the position of the largest Russian philosophers and writers - about. Paul Florenski Rozanov, D. Merezhkovsky Z. Gippius, and so on. For the first time analyzes the specific aspects of the blood libel of Orthodox Eastern Europe. The study is conducted on a broad cultural background, which includes a variety of writings from the monarchies (L. Tikhomirov, M. Menshikov) to liberal (Korolenko), from the openly anti-Semitic to the Zionist (V. Jabotinsky). Shows the influence of theological disputes in the case Bayliss on Russian avant-garde.