Talmud: its history and content. What is Shulkhan Aruch

Talmud: its history and content. What is Shulkhan Aruch

Ein Yaakov. Volume 4

Ein Yaakov. Volume 4

Babylonian Talmud. Section damages. Treatise Bava Kama

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.Talmud - one of the fundamental sources of Jewish law. 

Recording of the Babylonian Talmud was completed in 500's AD, but its history began much earlier.

The Torah consists of two parts: written and oral. Written Torah consists of five books, written Moshe. Along with them are considered part of the Written Torah and the Prophets Scriptures written by the prophets. In total, the Written Torah includes twenty-four books. Oral Torah contains the interpretation of the Written Torah and reveals in her extra levels of understanding.

Prior to the destruction of the Second Temple, the Oral Torah passed from teacher to student orally. It is written, "Moses received the Torah at Sinai and handed it to Joshua, Joshua - the elders, the elders - the prophets. Prophets have passed to the men of the Great Assembly "(Avot 1: 1). In the 200's AD and the great sage Rabbi Yehuda Torah scholar and-Nasi (Raby) recorded in summary form the basic laws of the Oral Torah, fearing that in exile the Torah can be forgotten or distorted. This set of laws called the Mishnah.

Writing the Mishna, Rabbi chose the most key statements Tanana (the sages of the Mishnah period, about 100 BC - 200 AD) and jotted them. Many of the laws mentioned in this collection hint, and for their full understanding requires knowledge transmitted from teacher to student orally. Thus, the Mishnah became the basis for allowing the continued existence of the Oral Torah as a discussion of the Mishnah sages of later generations.

During the discussion of the Mishnah Amora'im (sages of the Talmud period, about 200 - 500 AD.) Find out the origins and meaning of the laws contained in it; clarifying misunderstood places in the Mishnah disclose sources of additional information. In addition, in its deliberations Amora'im quotes Tana that Rabbi not included in the Mishnah (baraytot). In the course of studies they related all that had directly or indirectly related to the topic under discussion: the interpretation of the verses of the Written Torah knowledge from different fields, teaching, tips and more.

Subsequently oral studies Amora'im were recorded, to keep them for many generations. This collection is called the Talmud (teaching) or Gemara (the same as in Aramaic). It was edited and recorded first in Jerusalem and then in Babylon. Thus were created the Jerusalem and the Babylonian Talmud. In the 500's AD The Babylonian Talmud was the final form, which he kept until today.

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