Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (Maimonides), one of the greatest rabbis of all ages, was born on 14 Nisan 4895/1135 / in the family of Diana of the rabbinical court of Cordoba (Spain) Rabbi Maimon ben Yosef. His lineage can be traced back to King David. Moshe's father, revered in the community of scientist and public figure, was his first teacher of the Torah and the Talmud. Subsequently, the Rambam was very thorough secular education: mathematics, science, astronomy, medicine, philosophy ...
In 1148 in Spain was invaded Almohad warlike tribes of North Africa, who drew force infidels to Islam. Family p. Maimon had to flee Cordoba. After years of wandering in 1160, the family has found a temporary home in the Moroccan city of Fez, and in the 1165th moved to the Land of Israel, where they hoped to settle permanently. For a time they lived in Acre, then in Jerusalem. Here Maimonides began to study the innermost sections of the Torah. However, the board of the Crusaders, with fire and sword to eradicate all heterodoxy, made the existence of the Jews in the Land of Israel unbearable. Unable to withstand the vicissitudes of life, the Rambam's father died, and the family moved to Fustat (Old Cairo).
In the capital of Egypt, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon found tranquil haven. He made a living art of healing. Glory Rambam grew rapidly. Since 1171 he is the personal physician Saladin, the sultan of Egypt, and then the doctor his heir. Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon became rabbi of Fustat and the head of the Yeshiva and later head of the Jewish community of Egypt. Jews as well as Muslims flock to Fustat of the most remote corners of the Mediterranean, to listen to his sermons, public lectures on philosophy, medicine and science.
In Egypt, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon finished his commentary on the Mishnah, work on which began in the period of wandering, a commentary on a significant part of the Babylonian Talmud, written by two monumental work, which became the top of his spiritual activities, "Mishneh Torah" ("Repetition of the Torah "or" follow the Torah ") and" Sea nevuhim "(" Guide of the Perplexed ").
Maimonides died in Fostat 20 Tevet 4965/1204 / year. In the capital of Egypt was declared three days of mourning for both Jews and Muslims. Eight days later, the news of his death reached Jerusalem - the holy city were declared mourning and fasting. Shaken by the departure of the head of a recognized generation, contemporaries said: "From Moshe (Rabbeinu) to Moshe (Maimonides) there was no such Moshe (Rabbeinu)."
Later, the body of Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon was delivered to the Land of Israel. His tomb in Tiberias today is a place of pilgrimage.
In 1190 Rambam completed a comprehensive body of law that has immortalized his name. The book was called "Mishneh Torah". Vault was written in Hebrew in the laconic style close to the language of the Mishnah. The Code of Maimonides' laws are not in the same order as they appear in the Pentateuch or the Talmud, he systematized all the material thematically. Most of the above laws are formulated in the form of a final decision alahicheskih without contradicting opinions and links to sources.
In the preface to the "Mishneh Torah" Rambam explains the reasons which led him to create just such a set of "the great evils fallen upon our people in the recent past and our sages have lost their wisdom ... so I, Moshe ben Maimon, ... with the assistance of Gd ... found it necessary to clearly and concisely explain all the laws ... to make their learning accessible to everyone and that the person had no need for any other alahicheskih writings. In other words, this set includes the entire Oral Torah with all laws and regulations adopted since the time of Moshe Rabbeinu to the compilation of the Talmud, with all the comments made up to this day. That's why I called my book "Mishneh Torah," suggesting that a person who has studied the Written Torah, will be able to turn to my book and learn from it the entire Oral Torah, without resorting to other sources. "
During the life of the author scrolls "Mishneh Torah" gone for the most part of the diaspora.
Over time, the Code of Maimonides was one of the most respected in the Jewish world. It is not a substitute for the Oral Torah, but it has become an integral part of it. We are pleased to present this book to Russian readers in translation Shoshana Brodsky, who successfully Keagy publishes a series of "Mishneh Torah" for more than ten years.
The book ten sections, namely:
1. The laws of the Sabbath
2. The laws of association estates
3. Laws of Yom Kippur
4. The laws of holiday
5. The laws of chametz and matzah
6. The laws of the shofar, sukkah and lulav
7. The Law on polushekelyah
8. The laws of the consecration of the month
9. Laws posts
10. The laws of Purim and Hanukkah.
Sabbath laws include the five precepts, two and three to command forbidding. These are: 1) to refrain from work on Saturday, and 2) do not perform on Saturday, certain kinds of work, and 3) not to carry out punishments to which the court sentenced on Saturday, 4) do not go beyond the "boundaries of the suburbs" on Saturday; 5) to sanctify the Sabbath day by mouth.
The laws of association holdings include one commands the commandment, which is the resolution of the Sages, and not one of the 613 commandments of the Torah.
Laws of Yom Kippur include four commandments, two commanded two forbidding. These are: 1) to refrain from work on Yom Kippur, and 2) do not carry the day prohibited work, and 3) to fast on this day, and 4) Do not eat or drink that day.
The laws of holiday include twelve commandments, six commanded six forbidding. These are: 1) to refrain from work on the first day of Passover, and 2) do not carry the day prohibited work, and 3) to refrain from work on the seventh day of Passover, and 4) do not carry the day prohibited types of work, and 5) to abstain from work the feast of Shavuot, and 6) do not carry the day prohibited types of work, and 7) to refrain from work on Rosh Hashanah, 8) did not perform on Rosh Hashanah prohibited types of work, 9) to refrain from work on the first day of Sukkot; 10) does not perform in this day of work prohibited; 11) to refrain from work on the eighth day from the beginning of the holiday [of Sukkot], 12) did not perform that day of work prohibited.
The laws of chametz and matzah include the eight precepts, three of which commanded five banned. Namely: 1) do not have chametz (leaven) of the 14th of Nisan from the mid daylight, and 2) to refuse to chametz from the 14th of Nisan, and 3) is not chametz all seven days of Passover, and 4) is not a mixture, chametz, including all seven days of Passover, and 5) do not see chametz [in his possession] seven days, and 6) do not have in their possession chametz all seven days, and 7) have matzah (unleavened bread, unleavened bread) during the first night of Passover 8) the telling of the Exodus from Egypt in the same night.
The laws of the shofar, sukkah and lulav include three commands the commandments, namely: 1) to listen to the sounding of the shofar, the 1st of Tishrei (ie, on Rosh Hashanah), 2) live in the sukkah (hut) within seven days of the feast Sukkot 3) uplifting the lulav (unopened palm branch) in the Temple of the seven days of Sukkot.
The law is one of polushekelyah imperious command: every Jew to give annually polushekel (silver coin a certain weight) [in the temple expenses].
The laws of the consecration of the month describe one commands the commandment to calculate, determine and establish what day starts each month of all months of the year.
Laws to command posts describe one commandment to fast and cry out to God about any disaster that befall society.
The laws of Purim and Hanukkah are the two commands the ruling of the Sages, they are not among the 613 commandments of the Torah.
Thus, this book describes the 35 commandments of the Torah, of which 19 and 16 commands the commandments forbidding. In addition, it opisyvyutsya 3 of the Decision of the Sages.